The European Union

A blockbuster expose in the German newsmagazine Der Spiegel in July 2017 revealed that the Volkswagen and its subsidiaries had engaged in regular, secret meetings with its competitors, Daimler and BMW, and that the topics of these meetings included efforts to fix the prices for emissions technology and to standardize the size of tanks for AdBlue, the liquid used to mitigate Nitrous Oxide emissions.  Der Spiegel reported that the European Commission was investigating whether these secret meetings constituted collusion, and at least one of the automakers has been reported to have admitted that the group acted as a cartel.