In September of 2017, Scania, Volkswagen’s Swedish subsidiary, was fined over $1 billion by the European Union for participating in an illegal cartel along with five other truck manufacturers.  Scania denied the allegations and stated it would appeal the decision, but the other five manufacturers had all already confessed to participating in an illegal price fixing scheme that lasted for more that 14 years.  The first firm to confess to participating in the cartel was another VW subsidiary, MAN, which settled with the EU by paying a $1.2 billion fine.